MaltaWildPlants.com by Stephen Mifsud
 
     
   27 Jan 2023      ()
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Euphorbia paralias   (Sea Spurge)


Euphorbia paralias  (EUPHORBIACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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Profile Date July-2006 (taxon update: July-2006)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Euphorbia paralias - datasheet created on July-2006. Retrieved from MaltaWildPlants.com on 27-Jan-2023

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Euphorbia paraliasL.
Published in Sp. Pl. : 458 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Tithymalus paralias Hill
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] [Worldplants.de]

Plant Family :

Euphorbiaceae Juss. (The Spurge Family)
30 species from the Euphorbiaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Sea Spurge

Maltese name(s) :

Tengħud tar-ramel

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent     Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: CHAMEOPHYTE ( dwarf or small woody shrubs )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Protected by law: Schedule III and VI of [S.L. 549.44] (strictly protected species)

Red List (1989) :

Threatened status for the Maltese Islands and has been listed in the Red Data Book (1st ed.)

Flowering Time :

May – August

Colour of Flowers:

Inconspicuous, Green or Yellow

Toxicity:

May cause allergic reactions or irritation in contact with the skin or mucous membranes

Name Derivation :

Euphorbia: Named for Euphorbus, a Greek physician to Juba II - King of Mauretania of Numibia (52-50 BC - 23 AD), who might have used a certain plant in allusion to his swollen belly, possibly the plant Euphorbia resinifera. (Further info: [link]). Euphorbus can have also been derived from 'Eu-' = good or true and '-phorbe' = pasture or fodder, thus giving the meaning well-fed or provides a fat-belly from consumption. (Greek origin )
paralias: from the Greek 'paralos' = maritime since of the coastal habitat of this species, but sometimes used with the sense of blue like the sea for its bluish-green leaves. (Greek origin )

Planting in rural areas :

Can be planted in rural areas according to ERA Guidelines


Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Sandy sea-shores.
Preferred habitat in Malta: Confined to sandy seashores.
Botanical Description: Glabrous, glaucous, somewhat fleshy, caespitose perennial up to 70 cm, branched from the base, and with 0-9 axillary rays. Leaves 3-30 x 2-15 mm, lowest ones obovate-oblong, middle ones elliptic-oblong and upper ones ovate; all entire, adaxially concave, imbricate. Ray-leaves like the upper cauline. Raylet-leaves suborbicular-rhombic to reniform, strongly adaxially concave. Rays 3-6, up to 3 times dichotomous. Glands emarginate. Capsule 3-5 x 4.5-6 mm, deeply sulcate, granulate on the keels. Seeds 2.5-3.5 mm, broadly ovoid, smooth, pale grey.
Chromosome number: 2n=16
Distributional range: Coasts of W. & S. Europe, from Ireland and the Netherlands to Romania.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Albania, Belgium, the Balaeric Islands, Britain (excl. Northern Ireland and Channel islands), Bulgaria, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part)
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
AE(G) Ag Al Au Be Bl Br Bu Ca Co Cr Cy Cz Eg Ga Ge Gr Hb He Ho Hs IJ It Ju Li LS Lu Ma Md Rm Sa Si Sn Tcs Tn Tu(A E) Uk(K U)

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate

Wikipedia

JSTOR

GBIF

Med Checklist

Cat. of Life

EoL

IPNI

World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium

MNHN

Arkive

IUCN

CABI
Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (7 images)
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-0.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-1.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-2.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-3.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-4.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-5.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-6.

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