by Stephen Mifsud
   31 Jul 2021      ()
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Euphorbia paralias   (Sea Spurge)

Euphorbia paralias   (EUPHORBIACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands at or after year 2000.

Page Contents + Links

Nomenclature and Basic Information Images
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Profile Date July-2006 (last update: 12-Jan-2019)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (July-2006) Euphorbia paralias retrieved from on 2021-Jul-31

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Euphorbia paralias L.
Published in L., Sp. Pl. 458 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

No Main Synonyms
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life ]

Plant Family :

Euphorbiaceae Juss. (The Spurge Family)
24 species from the Euphorbiaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Sea Spurge

Maltese name(s) :

Tengħud tar-Ramel

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common     Frequent     Scarce     Rare     Very rare     Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: CHAMEOPHYTE (dwarf or small shrubs)
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection [link]:

Protected by law: schedule III and VI of legal notice LN311/2006. (strictly protected species)

Red List (1989) :

This species has a threatened status and is listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :


Colour of Flowers:


Species Description and Distribution

Habitat in Europe:

Sandy sea-shores.

Preferred habitat in Malta:

Confined to sandy seashores.

Botanical Description:

Glabrous, glaucous, somewhat fleshy, caespitose perennial up to 70 cm, branched from the base, and with 0-9 axillary rays. Leaves 3-30 x 2-15 mm, lowest ones obovate-oblong, middle ones elliptic-oblong and upper ones ovate; all entire, adaxially concave, imbricate. Ray-leaves like the upper cauline. Raylet-leaves suborbicular-rhombic to reniform, strongly adaxially concave. Rays 3-6, up to 3 times dichotomous. Glands emarginate. Capsule 3-5 x 4.5-6 mm, deeply sulcate, granulate on the keels. Seeds 2.5-3.5 mm, broadly ovoid, smooth, pale grey.

Chromosome number:


Distributional range:

Coasts of W. & S. Europe, from Ireland and the Netherlands to Romania.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):

Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):

Albania, Belgium, the Balaeric Islands, Britain (excl. Northern Ireland and Channel islands), Bulgaria, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part)

Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(Euro+Med Checklist, 2017) - Country codes

AE(G) Ag Al Au Be Bl Br Bu Ca Co Cr Cy Cz Eg Ga Ge Gr Hb He Ho Hs IJ It Ju Li LS Lu Ma Md Rm Sa Si Sn Tcs Tn Tu(A E) Uk(K U)

Images (7 images)
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-0.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-1.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-2.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-3.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-4.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-5.
   Euphorbia paralias   -   Image Code: EUPPA-6.

Links & Further info

Google Web

Google Images

Yahoo Web

Yahoo Images




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



The Plant List


Vienna Virt. Hb.





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Section B:   Where have you seen this plant on the Maltese Islands?
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