by Stephen Mifsud
   22 Jun 2024      ()
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Cyclamen persicum   (Persian cyclamen)

Cyclamen persicum  (PRIMULACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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Profile Date Aug-2022 (taxon update: none)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Cyclamen persicum - datasheet created on Aug-2022. Retrieved from on 22-Jun-2024

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Cyclamen persicumMill.
Published in Gard. Dict Ed.8 (1765)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Cyclamen latifolium Sm.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Primulaceae Vent. (The Primrose Family)
3 species from the Primulaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Persian cyclamen

Maltese name(s) :

Ċiklamini tal-Lvant

Status for Malta :

Naturalised Alien. Species that was introduced in Malta after year 1492 (Columbus' discovery of the New World) and spreads and integrates to form established, non-invasive populations. Species may become become invasive if it widespreads rapidly.

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent     Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: GEOPHYTE ( bearing underground bulbs, rhizomes, stolons, etc. )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (2/Mar/2022)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

April – May

Colour of Flowers:

Pink, Violet or White


Mildy toxic, can cause adverse conditions if consumed in large quantities

Name Derivation :


Planting in rural areas :

Can be planted in rural areas according to ERA Guidelines

Remarks :

Wherase populations in urban areas are undoubtfully alien escapees from culticvation, a large population present in the shade of a wooded area may represent a native origin (as it is in Greece and Tunisia). At present the species is considered alien until further studies clarifies the status.

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Wooded areas
Preferred habitat in Malta: Woodland (native?), cemeteries and old gardens (naturalised alien)
Botanical Description: Tuber 4-15 cm or more in diameter, subglobose or depressed-globose, corky, rooting from base. Leaves 3-14 × 3-14 cm, cordate, acute or obtuse; margins somewhat thickened, closely and obtusely denticulate, but rarely angled or lobed. Corolla without auricles, white or pink with a darker purple zone around the throat; lobes 25-45 mm. Styles exserted for 1-2 mm. Fruiting pedicel arcuate but not coiling.
Distributional range: Aegean region
Native region outside Europe: S.W. Asia

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
AE Ag Cr Cy Gr IJ LS Tn Tu(A)

Links & Further literature (1 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Contribution to the alien flora of the Maltese Islands: New records, observations on invasive species and taxonomic updates Stephen Mifsud  (2017)
Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (9 images)
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-0.
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-1.
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-2.
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-3.
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-4.
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-5.
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-6.
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-7.
   Cyclamen persicum   -   Image Code: CYCPR-8.

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