by Stephen Mifsud
   22 Jun 2024      ()
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Arisarum vulgare   (Friar's Cowl)

Arisarum vulgare  (ARACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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General Information Species Images
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Detailed species profile
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Profile Date Dec-2003 (taxon update: Nov-2010)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Arisarum vulgare - datasheet created on Dec-2003. Retrieved from on 22-Jun-2024

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Arisarum vulgareO.Targ.Tozz.
Published in Ann. Mus. Firenze. 2(2): 67 (1810)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Arum arisarum L.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Araceae Juss. (The Arum Family)
10 species from the Araceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Friar's Cowl, Arison

Maltese name(s) :

Garni tal-Pipa

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent    Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: GEOPHYTE ( bearing underground bulbs, rhizomes, stolons, etc. )
Germination [info]: Monocotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (2/Mar/2022)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

November – February

Colour of Flowers:

Brown or Green


May cause allergic reactions or irritation in contact with the skin or mucous membranes

Name Derivation :

Arisarum: Name given by Dioscorides (40 - 90 AD) for peculiar plants with pitcher-like flowers. (Greek origin )
vulgare: common and widespread, at least when this plant was described. (Latin origin )

Planting in rural areas :

Can be planted in rural areas according to ERA Guidelines

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Disturbed ground especially in shaded and damp areas
Preferred habitat in Malta: Mostly present in maquis and sheltered rocky areas but can also be found in high garigue, abandoned fields, disturbed ground with dumped soil and wooded areas. Prefers mostly partial shade and moist soil but can thrive in exposed rocky ground
Botanical Description: Stock an irregular, more or less ovoid tuber. Plant 20-40 cm. Leaves 6-12 x 4-10 cm, ovate to hastate-sagittate, obtuse or shortly mucronate, cordate at base; petiole long and slender, purple-spotted. Spathe 3-5 cm, erect, the basal part pale green with longitudinal stripes of dull reddish-purple, the upper part dark green to purplish-brown. Appendix of spadix greenish. Female flowers 4-5. Seeds 2-6.
Distributional range: Mediterranean region, C. & S. Portugal, Azores.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Albania, the Azores, the Balaeric Islands, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
AE(G) Ag Al Az Bl Ca Co Cr Cy Eg Ga Gr Hs IJ It Ju Li LS Ma Md Sa Si Sn Tcs Tu(A)

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (41 images)
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-0.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-1.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-2.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-3.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-4.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-5.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-6.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-7.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-8.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-9.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-10.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-11.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-12.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-13.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-14.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-15.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-16.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-17.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-18.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-19.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-20.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-21.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-22.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-23.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-24.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-25.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-26.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-27.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-28.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-29.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-30.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-31.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-32.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-33.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-34.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-35.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-36.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-37.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-38.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-39.
   Arisarum vulgare   -   Image Code: ARMVU-40.

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Section A:  Additional Information about this plant species
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Reference of published material:
Section B:   Where have you seen this plant on the Maltese Islands?
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